A teacher and researcher at the University of Washington for 36 years, Dr. Paine propounded his keystone theory in 1966 after studying ochre starfish, or sea stars, as they preyed on the mussel population along the rocky shore of Makah Bay, on the tip of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State.
What did Robert Paine want to study?
Paine developed a passion for palaeontology as an undergraduate at Harvard University in Cambridge. But his plan to study fossils as a graduate — at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor — was derailed after he started attending classes taught by ecologist Frederick E. Smith.
What ecosystem did Robert Paine study his team of researchers?
In a noteworthy 1966 paper, Paine described a rocky intertidal ecosystem in Makah Bay in Washington state, where top predator species help maintain biodiversity. This led to his 1969 paper in which he proposed the keystone species concept.
What did Bob Paine discover?
Paine discovered two fundamental ecological concepts – keystone species, when a species has an out-sized impact on communities, and trophic cascades, when creatures have strong indirect domino effects throughout a food chain. Paine is one of the most honored ecologists of his generation. He received the 1983 Robert H.
What animal did Robert Paine discover at the top of the food chain?
Robert Payne studied pisaster ochraceous starfish, which were at the top of the food chain and ate many organisms in the ocean. Payne went and threw out all the starfish from off of rocks hoping to increase the number of species on the rock by removing the predator.
What did Paine discover by removing the keystone species from the ecosystem?
He found a similar chain reaction — or “trophic cascade,” as he called it — when sea otters vanished or were removed from an environment because of fur trading, pollution or marine predators.
Which of the following ecological concept S did Robert Paine describe while studying the rocky west coast intertidal zone?
Question: Which of the following ecological concept(s) did Robert Paine describe while studying the rocky west-coast intertidal zone? Keystone species Predators impact the outcome of interspecific competition.
How did Paine test his hypothesis about starfish?
To see what they were feasting upon, Paine turned more than 1,000 starfish over and examined the animals held against their stomachs. He discovered that the starfish was an opportunistic gourmand that ate barnacles, chitons, limpets, snails, and mussels.
How are starfish keystone species?
Sea stars are important members of the marine environment and are considered a keystone species. A keystone species preys on animals that have no other natural predators and if they are removed from the environment, their prey will increase in number and may drive out other species.
What is the foundation of ecosystems?
plants are foundation of all ecosystems because they get energy from sun and are known as primary producers.
What happened to the kelp when Professor Paine removed all the sea urchins?
[CARROLL (narrated):] Paine removed all the urchins by hand from some pools and left nearby pools untouched. Again, the results were dramatic. In the pools where he removed urchins, the kelp started growing almost immediately.
What was the result of Bob Paine’s experiment?
The keystone species concept influences almost all areas of ecology. The results of Paine’s experiment were counterintuitive. Species diversity was much higher when Pisaster was present than when they were removed. … Through such influence, Pisaster maintained open space for a variety of species to coexist.
What did Robert Treat Paine do?
Robert Treat Paine (March 11, 1731 – May 11, 1814) was an American lawyer, politician, and Founding Father of the United States who signed the Continental Association and the Declaration of Independence as a representative of Massachusetts.
Can starfish be purple?
Pisaster ochraceus, generally known as the purple sea star, ochre sea star, or ochre starfish, is a common starfish found among the waters of the Pacific Ocean. ochraceus is considered an important indicator for the health of the intertidal zone. …
What eats a starfish?
Many different animals eat sea stars, including fish, sea turtles, snails, crabs, shrimp, otters, birds and even other sea stars. Though the sea star’s skin is hard and bumpy, a predator can eat it whole if its mouth is large enough. Predators with smaller mouths can flip the sea star over and eat the softer underside.
What was Paine’s hypothesis?
Paine (1966) had observed that the diversity of organisms in rocky intertidal ecosystems declined as the number of predators in those ecosystems decreased. He hypothesized that some of these consumers might be playing a greater role than others in controlling the numbers of species coexisting in these communities.