How does elevation affect climate in Africa?

Results show that the mean rainfall (temperature) significantly reduces (increases) over the region when topography elevation is reduced. Based on the model, when topography over the selected region (KTU) is reduced to 25%, the mean rainfall (temperature) over east Africa is reduced (increased) by about 19% (1.4°C).

How do mountains affect climate in Africa?

Mountains can affect the climate of nearby lands. In some areas, mountains block rain, so that one side of a mountain range may be rainy and the other side may be a desert. Much of airborne moisture falls as rain on the windward side of mountains.

What factors influence climate in Africa?

3.1 Factors affecting climate

  • distance from the sea.
  • ocean currents.
  • direction of prevailing winds.
  • shape of the land (known as ‘relief’ or ‘topography’)
  • distance from the equator.
  • the El Niño phenomenon.
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What is the effect of altitude on temperature of high mountain regions of Africa?

Since air is less dense at higher altitudes, its molecules are spread farther apart than they are at sea level. These molecules have fewer collisions, so they produce less heat. The peak of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (Africa, 3° south latitude) is 6 kilometers (4 miles) above sea level.

How does altitude affect climate of a place?

Altitude or height above sea level – Locations at a higher altitude have colder temperatures. Temperature usually decreases by 1°C for every 100 metres in altitude. 4. … This means that coastal locations tend to be cooler in summer and warmer in winter than places inland at the same latitude and altitude.

Does elevation affect temperature?

Near the Earth’s surface, air gets cooler the higher you climb. As you climb a mountain, you can expect the air temperature to decrease by 6.5 degrees C for every 1000 meters you gain. This is called the standard (average) lapse rate.

How does mountains affect weather and climate?

Mountains can have a significant effect on rainfall. When air reaches the mountains, it is forced to rise over this barrier. As the air moves up the windward side of a mountain, it cools, and the volume decreases. As a result, humidity increases and orographic clouds and precipitation can develop.

How do winds affect the climate of a place?

Wind carries moisture into an atmosphere, as well as hot or cold air into a climate which affects weather patterns. Therefore, a change in wind results in a change of weather. … Wind travels from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Additionally, heat and pressure cause the wind to shift direction.

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How does temperature affect climate?

Higher temperatures mean that heat waves are likely to happen more often and last longer, too. … Warmer temperatures can also lead to a chain reaction of other changes around the world. That’s because increasing air temperature also affects the oceans, weather patterns, snow and ice, and plants and animals.

What are the 5 major factors that affect climate?

LOWERN

  • Latitude. It depends on how close or how far it is to the equator. …
  • Ocean currents. Certain ocean currents have different temperatures. …
  • Wind and air masses. Heated ground causes air to rise which results in lower air pressure. …
  • Elevation. The higher up you are, the colder and drier it will be. …
  • Relief.

What other factors of weather and climate are affected by elevation?

As you increase in elevation, there is less air above you thus the pressure decreases. As the pressure decreases, air molecules spread out further (i.e. air expands), and the temperature decreases. If the humidity is at 100 percent (because it’s snowing), the temperature decreases more slowly with height.”

How does elevation affect rainfall?

Elevation affects precipitation significantly, especially in a mountain environment. On the windward side of a mountain, precipitation is increased. As air parcel rises due to increasing elevation on the windward side of the mountain, the air parcel cools, condenses, and it rains.

How does altitude affect climate patterns in a region areas at high elevations have cooler temperatures?

Answer: Altitude influences air temperature (since temperatures usually decrease with height by about 6.5°C per 1000 meters or 3.6°F per 1000 ft). Higher altitude sites are generally cooler and wetter (experience more precipitation) than nearby lower elevation sites.

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How do altitude and slope affect the climate?

At higher altitudes, the air is less dense and air molecules are more spread out and less likely to collide. A location in the mountains has lower average temperatures than one at the base of the mountains. … rainshadow effect, which brings warm, dry climate to the leeward side of a mountain range (Figure below).

How does altitude influence South African climate?

Altitude and Temperature

In South Africa, the lowest temperatures are usually found in the high-altitude areas and mountains, but this can be influenced by other factors. If all other factors are equal, air temperature decreases with increasing height above sea level; i.e. the temperature goes down, as you go higher.

How does altitude and land topography affect climate?

The topography of an area can influence the weather and climate. … Mountainous areas tend to have more extreme weather because it acts as a barrier to air movements and moisture. One side of mountain can be dry while the other side is full of vegetation. Mountains can cause a physical barrier to rain clouds.