Malaria is sensitive to climate change in the sense that the vector that spreads malaria and the parasite that causes the disease are sensitive to climate variables especially rainfall and temperature. Research on the impact of climate change on the dynamics of malaria is still ongoing [2–6].
Is malaria affected by climate?
Climate change greatly influences the El Niño cycle that is known to be associated with increased risks of some diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue, and Rift Valley fever. In dry climates, heavy rainfall can provide good breeding conditions for the mosquitoes.
What are climate sensitive diseases?
The major diseases that are most sensitive to climate change – diarrhoea, vector-borne diseases like malaria, and infections associated with undernutrition – are most serious in children living in poverty.
What kind of climate is required for malaria to occur?
Thus, tropical and subtropical areas are ideal. Warm temperatures are also required for malaria parasites to complete their growth cycle within the mosquitoes. At temperatures below 20°C (68°F), the parasite Plasmodium falciparum can not complete its growth cycle in the mosquitoes so it can not be transmitted.
Is malaria an environmental disease?
Due to the fact that malaria is insect vector transmitted, the environment is a key determinant of the spread of infection.
Why is malaria restricted to the tropics?
Temperature is particularly critical. For example, at temperatures below 20°C (68°F), Plasmodium falciparum (which causes severe malaria) cannot complete its growth cycle in the Anopheles mosquito, and thus cannot be transmitted.
What impact does malaria have on the environment?
Mostly relating to the organisms in the environment and biodiversity, malaria causes great disruption in the ecosystem. One main way of preventing the spread of malaria includes indoor spraying of insecticides. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an example of this insecticide used for disease vector control.
Is malaria a pandemic or epidemic?
HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria shouldn’t be labeled as “just” epidemics or endemic. They are pandemics that have been beaten in rich countries.
What type of disease is malaria?
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills.
Is malaria an endemic or epidemic?
For example, when COVID-19 was limited to Wuhan, China, it was an epidemic. The geographical spread turned it into a pandemic. Endemics, on the other hand, are a constant presence in a specific location. Malaria is endemic to parts of Africa.
What are examples of environmental diseases?
Examples include: Chemicals in cigarettes are known to cause lung cancer. Exposure to asbestos, an insulating material found in some older buildings, can cause tumors, lung cancer, and other diseases. Wood-burning stoves and poorly vented gas ranges can produce smoke or gases that can cause breathing problems.
What is an environmental disease?
In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection). Apart from the true monogenic genetic disorders, which are rare, environment is a major determinant of the development of disease.
What environmental and economic factors made Africa be the most susceptible place for malaria?
Africa is the most affected due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito (Anopheles gambiae complex) is responsible for high transmission. The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum , which is the species that is most likely to cause severe malaria and death.