What are the two major causes of environmental change in Australia’s marine environments?

Australia’s marine environment is influenced by 3 major currents: the EAC , a western boundary current system that flows southwards along the east coast of Australia, redistributing heat between the ocean and the atmosphere, and between the tropics and the mid-latitudes.

What are the causes of environmental change in Australia?

Electricity generation is the main cause of carbon pollution in Australia as 73% of our electricity comes from burning coal and 13% from burning gas. The remaining 14% comes from renewable energy sources such as hydro, solar and wind, which do not emit carbon.

What is happening to marine environments in Australia?

Climate extremes since the last state of the environment ( SoE ) report in 2011 have led to widespread coral bleaching , loss of kelp forests, habitat destruction and invertebrate mortalities in both western and eastern waters of Australia.

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What affects the marine environment?

Human activities affect marine life and marine habitats through overfishing, habitat loss, the introduction of invasive species, ocean pollution, ocean acidification and ocean warming.

What are Australia’s biggest environmental issues?

Major environmental issues in Australia include whaling, logging of old growth forest, irrigation and its impact on the Murray River, Darling River and Macquarie Marshes, acid sulfate soils, soil salinity, land clearing, soil erosion, uranium mining and nuclear waste, creation of marine reserves, air quality in major …

What are the three major causes of climate change?

The main causes of climate change are:

  • Humanity’s increased use of fossil fuels – such as coal, oil and gas to generate electricity, run cars and other forms of transport, and power manufacturing and industry.
  • Deforestation – because living trees absorb and store carbon dioxide.

What are 2 effects of El Nino?

Severe drought and associated food insecurity, flooding, rains, and temperature rises due to El Niño are causing a wide range of health problems, including disease outbreaks, malnutrition, heat stress and respiratory diseases.

What types of activities take place in marine environments?

Many members of the community use the marine environment, either for recreational activities (including boating and fishing) or for commercial activities (such as tourism, charter fishing and commercial fishing).

Why is the marine environment important?

The marine environment is a vital resource for life on Earth. Marine eco- systems perform a number of key environmental functions — they regulate the climate, prevent erosion, accumulate and distribute solar energy, absorb carbon dioxide, and maintain biological control.

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What problems are oceans facing?

Global warming is causing sea levels to rise, threatening coastal population centers. Many pesticides and nutrients used in agriculture end up in the coastal waters, resulting in oxygen depletion that kills marine plants and shellfish. Factories and industrial plants discharge sewage and other runoff into the oceans.

What are the factors causing risk to marine life?

Numerous things can affect marine life, including pollution, temperature, ocean currents and the sea’s chemical balance.

  • Pollution. Experts contend that water contamination or pollution is the greatest factor that affects marine life. …
  • Rising Temperatures. …
  • Ocean Currents. …
  • Chemical Balance.

What are three physical environmental factors that affect marine life?

These include light availability, oxygen levels, water movement, salinity, density and pH. These conditions often vary from habitat to habitat and will either support or limit the life processes of the marine organisms living there.

Which two threats to marine ecosystems are the most serious?

Here are five of the biggest challenges our oceans face, and what we can do to solve them.

  1. Climate change. Climate change arguably presents the greatest threat to ocean health. …
  2. Plastic pollution. …
  3. Sustainable seafood. …
  4. Marine protected areas. …
  5. Fisheries subsidies.

What are the main causes of water scarcity in Australia?

In Australia, the most serious problem is water shortage. The reason is that there is a little of rain. By it, the desertifications break out. It is said that Australia is the second dry country following the South Pole.

What are 3 of the key environmental challenges facing Australia and the Pacific Islands?

Pacific Island ecosystems are being degraded by pollution, overfishing, and unsustainable development. They also increasingly face severe climate impacts including sea-level rise, changing temperature and rainfall patterns.

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What are the main environmental issues facing Australia’s food production?

Water scarcity, heat stress and increased climatic variability in our most productive agricultural regions, such as the Murray Darling Basin, are key risks for our food security, economy, and dependent industries and communities.