Why is the Mediterranean so biodiverse?

The high marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea may be due to different reasons: for example, it has been more intensively studied than the other seas; its tormented geological history and the numerous climatic and hydrologic events that led to the co‐occurrence of temperate and subtropical species [1].

Why is the Mediterranean a biodiversity hotspot?

Why is the Mediterranean such an outstanding place? The Mediterranean basin is recognised as a biodiversity hotspot: its flora diversity is outstanding with 15,000 to 25,000 species, 60% of which are unique to the region. About one third of the Mediterranean fauna is endemic.

Why is the Mediterranean basin so diverse?

This region is a major hot spot of biodiversity, with unique spatial patterns shaped by a complex climatic and geological history, in addition to biotic interactions, habitat heterogeneity, islands isolation, and anthropogenic pressure.

How does the Mediterranean Sea spread diversity?

The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. … In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea.

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What makes the Mediterranean special?

It has specific regional features: a climate of hot dry summers and humid, cool winters and a generally hilly landscape. The Mediterranean has not only a very rich biodiversity but also a large number of species that do not exist anywhere else.

Why is Madagascar a biodiversity hotspot?

While our planet is a wonderland of wildlands, there are few places as spectacular as Madagascar, a Biodiversity Hotspot. … Madagascar is home to thousands of endemic plants and animals found nowhere else on the planet that have evolved over the 90 million years that it has been secluded from the rest of the world.

What defines a biodiversity hotspot?

To be classified as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must have lost at least 70 percent of its original natural vegetation, usually due to human activity. There are over 30 recognized biodiversity hotspots in the world. The Andes Mountains Tropical Hotspot is the world’s most diverse hotspot.

Is the Mediterranean high biodiversity?

The Mediterranean Basin is thus considered a biodiversity “hot spot” (Médail & Quézel, 1997). The forest biodiversity of the Mediterranean Basin is also very high. More than 100 tree species can be found on a surface that represents only 1.8% of forests worldwide.

Why does the Mediterranean have rocky beaches?

Abstract: Rock coasts and shore platforms are conspicuous landforms along the Mediterranean and Black Sea (MBS) coasts. These coasts have been fashioned by changes in sea level because of vertical movements of the land and variations in eustatic and isostatic sea-level.

What is the main climatic characteristics of the Mediterranean region?

The concept of Mediterranean climate is characterized by mild wet winters and warm to hot, dry summers and occur on the west side of continents between about 30° and 40° latitude. However, the presence of a relatively large mass of water is unique to the actual Mediterranean region.

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What type of ecosystem is the Mediterranean Sea?

The Mediterranean Large Marine Ecosystem (Med-LME) is a heterogeneous system that, despite its oligotrophic nature, has high diversity of marine species and high rate of endemism, making it one of the world hotspots for marine biodiversity.

How does the Mediterranean Sea affect people’s lives?

For the millions of people who live along the Mediterranean coast – and the millions more who visit every year – the sea is a source of pleasure, leisure, food and income. … The sea absorbs around a quarter of all the carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere through human activity.

How have human activities changed the Mediterranean Sea?

Human activities, such as shipping, aquaculture, and the opening of the Suez Canal, have led to the introduction of nearly 1000 alien species into the Mediterranean Sea. … The distribution of species introduced by shipping is strikingly different, with several hotspot areas occurring throughout the Mediterranean basin.

Is Turkey considered Mediterranean?

They are Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. The Mediterranean region has historically been the scene of intense human activity.

Why is the Mediterranean Europe called the Garden of the World?

Due to winter rainfall, this region is favorable for citrus fruit cultivation. The region is famous for wine production. … About 70% of citrus fruits are produced here and exported. So, it is called the garden of the world.

Are Portuguese considered Mediterranean?

The Mediterranean countries are those that surround the Mediterranean Sea. … While not having a coastline in the Mediterranean, Portugal, Andorra, San Marino, Vatican City, Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, North Macedonia and Jordan are often included on the list of Mediterranean countries.

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